Research

Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults
There is evidence that low, and possibly high, selenium status is associated with depressed mood. In young adults, an optimal range of serum selenium between ∼82 and 85 μg/L was associated with reduced risk of depressive symptomatology. Antioxidant pathways linking selenium to mood. 

Essential elements in depression and anxiety
Enzymes require cofactors such as selenium and are involved in the underlying pathophysiology of mechanisms that link elements to the neurobiology underlying depression/anxiety. 

m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide, a multi-target selenium compound, prevented mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behavior in a mouse comorbid pain and depression model
In inflammation-induced depression and chronic pain, the study’s results indicate that (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (a form of selenium) could become an interesting molecule to treat long-lasting pathological pain associated with depression. 

Depressive-like behavior induced by tumor necrosis factor-α is attenuated by m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide in mice
A growing body of evidence associates activation of immune system with depressive symptoms. 
Pro inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), have been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. There is an antidepressant-like and anti-inflammatory effect of (m-CF3-PhSe)2 to (a form of selenium) that is able to prevent the depressive-like behavior induced by intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α in mice. Selenium is able to treat depressive disorders that have been largely linked to immune process and inflammation.

Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression
Intake of vitamins A, thiamine, riboflavin, B6, folate, C, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and fibre (p < 0.05) were lower in depression group than the control group. They found an inverse relationship between certain vitamins and depression.

Acute administration of Zn, Mg, and thiamine improves postpartum depression conditions in mice
Acute administration of combined treatment with Zn, Mg, and Vit B1 on postpartum day 3 improves depressive symptoms and anxiety-like behaviors in Postpartum depression (PPD). Thiamine (Vit B1) deficiency results in a high percentage of depressive behaviors. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in pregnancy are implicated in the pathogenesis of major depression.

The effects of vitamin B1 on ameliorating the premenstrual syndrome symptoms
Vitamin B1 is effective in recovery of mental and physical symptoms of PMS (5).

Nutrient intakes are correlated with overall psychiatric functioning in adults with mood disorders
This study reveals an association between higher levels of nutrient intakes and better mental health. 

Riboflavin status and its association with serum hs-CRP levels among clinical nurses with depression
This study showed a higher prevalence of marginal riboflavin (B2) deficiency in depressed subjects 

Dietary folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and depressive symptoms in early adolescence: the Ryukyus Child Health Study
This study suggests that higher intake of dietary B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B6, is independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. They examined the association between dietary folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and depressive symptoms in a group of adolescents.

Vitamin and mineral intakes in adults with mood disorders: comparisons to nutrition standards and associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes of people with mood disorders. Adults with mood disorders are at risk for many nutrient inadequacies, as well as occasional excesses; social, demographic, and clinical factors may affect their nutrient intakes.

Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-dwelling older adults: the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging
This study showed decreased depression among men with higher intakes of B12 from food.

Nutritional aspects of depression
This study showed that Vitamin B12 can be used as an antidepressant.

Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect
This study showed evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 in improving well being.

Homocysteine excess: delineating the possible mechanism of neurotoxicity and depression
Deficient B12 results in elevated homocysteine (which is neurotoxic) and that is linked to depression. Genetic alterations in key enzyme MTHFR in the homocysteine metabolism pathway that leads to depression and therefore methylated forms b vitamins are essential. Vitamin B12 remethylates homocysteine back into methionine.

Methyl donor supplementation in rats reverses the deleterious effect of maternal separation on depression-like behaviour
Methyl donor supplementation (such as with methylcobalamin, the form of B12 used in Antidepressant Companion) reversed some of the deleterious effects of an early life-induced model of depression and reduced body weight without affecting food intake.

Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression
Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with depression and obesity. “Vitamin B consumption and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were low while signs of abdominal obesity were high among patients with depression”

Brain and liver oxidative stress after sertraline and haloperidol treatment in mice
This article discusses how antidepressants can cause oxidative stress in the brain, specifically with respect to to how sertraline may decrease catalase and PON1 activity. Sertraline decreased catalase and PON1 activity which might expose the brain to further oxidative insults

Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Sertraline, an Antidepressant Agent
Researchers at the Oxford Journal describe how antidepressant can cause fatigue, muscle weakness, diminished brain power, by decreasing intracellular ATP.

A Meta-Analysis of Oxidative Stress Markers in Depression
This article describes how oxidaive stress is related to depression. Findings show that depressed patients have lower antioxidant status, and higher serum free radicals and more oxidative damage overall as compared to controls.

NAC is a powerful antioxidant
This is an article from Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition describing the power of n-acetyl cysteine as an antioxidant.

N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) Improves Behavior of Autistic Children
N-acetyl cysteine supplementation improves behavior of children with autistic disorder. As a powerful antioxidant to the brain, it helps calm down hyperactivity and irritable nerves. NAC has a two-pronged benefit: “it helps boost cellular levels of the key antioxidant enzyme system glutathione and it helps calm down hyper and irritable nerves.”

Drugs that Deplete: Coenzyme Q10
This resource from the University of Maryland Medical Center, provides a listing of drugs that deplete coenzyme Q10.

Drugs and Supplements: Coenzyme Q10
According to the mayo Clinic, signs of low Coenzyme C10 may include: heart disease, high blood pressure, chest pain, macular degeneration, early and rapid aging, chronic fatigue, and cognitive problems like depression, brain fog and alzheimer’s disease.

Lower plasma Coenzyme Q10 in depression: a marker for treatment resistance and chronic fatigue in depression and a risk factor to cardiovascular disorder in that illness
This is a publication describing how low COQ10 plays a role in the cause of depression, especially depression associated with treatment resistant depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome: “The results show that lower CoQ10 plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and in particular in TRD and CFS accompanying depression.”

Coenzyme Q10 displays antidepressant-like activity with reduction of hippocampal oxidative/nitrosative DNA damage in chronically stressed rats
This study demonstrates a a link between coenzyme Q10 and depression.

Tyrosine
The University of Maryland Medical Center provides an overview of tyrosine including its role in brain health, dietary sources, dosing, and safety.

Neurotransmitter Repletion
Dr. Kaslow MD, FACP, FACAAI describes the role of neurotransmitters in many mental and physical ailments. He provides an overview explanation about neurotransmitter depletion, the benefits of neurotransmitter repletion, and how medications can cause imbalances in neurotransmitters.

Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of U.S. adults
This publication in the Journal of Nutrition describes how much of the U.S. population does not consume/take enough magnesium and describes the importance of magnesium in health.

Magnesium Metabolism
This article describes how magnesium deficiency can be a key cause of depression. Authors state: “Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness, headache, delirium, hallucinations and hyperexcitability,” and “The possibility that magnesium deficiency is the cause of most major depression and related mental health problems including IQ loss and addiction is enormously important to public health.”

Drugs that Deplete: Melatonin
Hershey medical center provides an overview of melatonin including it’s role in brain health, dietary sources, dosing, and safety.

Effect of fluoxetine on melatonin in patients with seasonal affective disorder and matched controls
This paper demonstrated that antidepressant fluoxetine significantly reduced melatonin levels in both patients with depression and also control groups.

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