Our products are currently available directly to consumers. They do not need to be purchased through a healthcare provider. However, Natural Mental Health Supplements is beginning to partner with healthcare practitioners who want to provide Antidepressant Companion and other NMHS products direct to consumers. If you are interested in having this available to you for your office, please contact us at email@example.com.
Below you will find more detailed information about each of our ingredients along with journal references.
Antidepressant medications, like the SSRI sertraline (Zoloft), can cause oxidative stress in the brain (1), cause fatigue, muscle weakness, diminished brain power, and even more depression by impairing the cells in the body in making adenosine triphosphate or ATP, the primary source of energy used by the cells in your brain and body (2). Researchers have also found that if patients have more oxidative stress, they are at a higher risk of becoming depressed and staying depressed (3). Antidepressant Companion contains ingredients that not only replace the nutrients depleted by antidepressant medications, but it also contains antioxidants that specifically target the brain to reduce oxidative stress, and help cells produce more ATP. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is among the most powerful antioxidants for brain function (4). NAC has a two-pronged benefit: “it helps boost cellular levels of the key antioxidant enzyme system glutathione and it helps calm down hyper and irritable nerves.” If your patients are feeling sluggish, have poor concentration, memory, and focus, and if they are feeling weak, have muscle fatigue, low stamina, or feel irritable and angry, it may be a sign that they would benefit from NAC (5). Antidepressant Companion contains the optimal form and dose of NAC to help your patients maintain balanced brain chemistry, reduce oxidative damage, and decrease inflammation in the brain.
1) Antidepressants can cause oxidative stress in the brain: “Sertraline decreased catalase and PON1 activity which might expose the brain to further oxidative insults” J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;24(2):115-23. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2012-0022. Brain and liver oxidative stress after sertraline and haloperidol treatment in mice. Abdel-Salam OM1, Youness ER, Khadrawy YA, Sleem AA.
2) Antidepressant can cause fatigue, muscle weakness, diminished brain power, by decreasing intracellular ATP: “sertraline rapidly depleted cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”: Oxford Journals. Toxicological Sciences. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Sertraline, an Antidepressant Agent Yan Li*, Letha Couch†, Masahiro Higuchi‡, Jia-Long Fang† and Lei Guo†,1
3) Oxidative Stress is Related to Depression: “antioxidant levels are lower, and the serum free radical and oxidative damage product levels are higher than controls in depressed patients”: PLoS One. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):e0138904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138904. eCollection 2015. A Meta-Analysis of Oxidative Stress Markers in Depression. Liu T1, Zhong S2, Liao X3, Chen J4, He T4, Lai S3, Jia Y2.
4) NAC is a powerful antioxidant: J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2005; 2(2): 38–44. Published online 2005 Dec 9. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-2-2-38 PMCID: PMC2129149 The Antioxidant Role of Glutathione and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Supplements and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress. Chad Kerksick and Darryn Willoughby.
5) NAC has a two-pronged benefit: “it helps boost cellular levels of the key antioxidant enzyme system glutathione and it helps calm down hyper and irritable nerves.”: Richards, B. (2012). N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) Improves Behavior of Autistic Children. Wellness Resources.
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) like Amitriptyline (Elavil), Doxepin and Nortriptyline deplete the body of Ubiquinone, otherwise known as CoQ10 (1) (2). CoQ10 is a molecule that is found in every cell of the body. It enables the cells to produce energy so that they can grow as well as maintain the body’s functions. CoQ10 is also one of the body’s most powerful antioxidants and it protects the body and brain from damage caused by harmful substances, free radicals, and oxidative stress. If your patients have low CoQ10 as a result of their antidepressant, they may be at a higher risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, chest pain, macular degeneration, early and rapid aging, chronic fatigue syndrome, and cognitive problems like brain fog and alzheimer’s disease (3). Low CoQ10 plays a role in the cause of depression, especially those with “treatment resistant depression” (4), and additional signs of low CoQ10 include: anxiety, high blood pressure, chest pain, memory loss, asthma, chronic fatigue, gum disease, migraines, weakness, nerve pain, and more. Studies show that tricyclic antidepressants, among others, deplete CoQ10 stores (see above reference). It is well documented that CoQ10 improves memory, is a powerful antioxidant and has an antidepressant effect (5). Antidepressant Companion contains the optimal form and dose of CoQ10 to help your patients balance brain chemistry, hormones, and to help them feel mentally clear and sharp.
1) Drugs that Deplete: Coenzyme Q10. University of Maryland Medical Center Medical Reference Guide. Complementary and Alternative medicine Guide.
2) Drugs that Deplete: Coenzyme Q10 (2011). PennState Hershey. Milton S. Hersehey Medical Center.
3) Signs of low COQ10: heart disease, high blood pressure, chest pain, macular degeneration, early and rapid aging, chronic fatigue, and cognitive problems like depression, brain fog and alzheimers disease. Mayo Clinic. Drugs and Supplements: Coenzyme Q10.
4) Low COQ10 plays a role in the cause of depression, especially depression associated with treatment resistant depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome: “The results show that lower CoQ10 plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression and in particular in TRD and CFS accompanying depression” Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30(4):462-9. Lower plasma Coenzyme Q10 in depression: a marker for treatment resistance and chronic fatigue in depression and a risk factor to cardiovascular disorder in that illness. Maes M1, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Uytterhoeven M, Vrydags N, Bosmans E.
5) Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013 Mar;104:105-12. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.12.027. Epub 2013 Jan 11. Coenzyme Q10 displays antidepressant-like activity with reduction of hippocampal oxidative/nitrosative DNA damage in chronically stressed rats. Aboul-Fotouh S1.
L-tyrosine is an amino acid that is made from phenylalanine, and can be found in foods like soybeans, cheese, beef, lamb, fish, pork, eggs, beans, nuts, and whole grains. L-tyrosine is extremely important for brain function because it is a precursor of the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate and influence mood. If your patients have depression, anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, fibromyalgia, premenstrual tension (PMS), weight gain, low appetite, and insomnia or other issues associated with difficulty sleeping, they may have low norepinephrine and epinephrine (2). Low dopamine may cause feelings of boredom, a lack of satisfaction, low energy, a lack of a desire for exercise, lethargy, low libido, restless legs, weight gain, and easy distractibility (3). Supplementing with tyrosine can help with all of the above symptoms and unlike antidepressants, which may take upwards of two weeks to help you feel better, tyrosine works very quickly. Tyrosine is particularly important for those who have Phenylketonuria (PKU) which is a genetic condition where people can not correctly metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, therefore they do not make l-tyrosine and this can lead to brain damage and intellectual disability (1).
1) Tyrosine. University of Maryland Medical Center.
2) Jeremy E. Kaslow, M.D. (2015) Neurotransmitter Repletion.
3) Low dopamine (e.g. dopamine deficiency): causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options. WEBLICKER, Ltd.
According to the Journal of Nutrition, “It is estimated that 68 to 80 percent of Americans are magnesium deficient” (1). This fact has staggering implications about the health and nutritional status of Americans. Among the myriad implications is the relationship between magnesium and mental health. It is accepted among health care professionals that magnesium deficiency is one of the main causes of depression (1). Additional signs of magnesium deficiency include: panic attacks, anxiety, behavioral disturbances, headaches, muscle soreness and cramps, seizures, ataxia, psychosis, and irritability. All of these magnesium deficiency symptoms are completely reversible with supplementation of magnesium in the appropriate forms and dosages (3). Researchers Eby and Eby in the study entitled “Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment,” concluded their research on magnesium and its effects on mood, by stating: “The possibility that magnesium deficiency is the cause of most major depression and related mental health problems including IQ loss and addiction is enormously important to public health” (1). Antidepressant Companion is formulated to provide your patients with the optimal dose and form of magnesium, paired in appropriate doses with it’s cofactor vitamins and minerals to offer the most benefit at optimal enzyme kinetics.
1) Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of U.S. adults. J Nutr 2003;133: 2879-2882.
2) Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):362-70. Epub 2006 Mar 20. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Eby GA1, Eby KL. Magnesium deficiency causes depression: “Dietary deficiencies of magnesium, coupled with excess calcium and stress may cause many cases of other related symptoms including agitation, anxiety, irritability, confusion, asthenia, sleeplessness, headache, delirium, hallucinations and hyperexcitability,” “The possibility that magnesium deficiency is the cause of most major depression and related mental health problems including IQ loss and addiction is enormously important to public health”
3) Warren E. C. Wacker, M.D. and Alfred F. Parisi, M.D. Magnesium Metabolism. The New England Journal of Medicine Volume 278, pages 658-776.
Melatonin is responsible for regulating circadian rhythm, it is involved in the timing and release of female reproductive hormones, it is a powerful antioxidant and is involved in immune system function, and it is also related to aging. Research has shown that certain medications, including antidepressant medications like fluoxetine (Prozac), deplete the body of melatonin, which may be in part why patients experience sleeping difficulties while taking these medications. These medications also deplete important building blocks for the production of neurotransmitters (such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, etcetera) (1). If your patients have insomnia or difficulty falling asleep/ staying asleep, fatigue, difficulty focusing and concentrating, brain fog, or irritable bowels, these may be signs that their melatonin stores are low and that replacement melatonin may be beneficial. Antidepressant Companion contains the optimal form and dose of melatonin to help your patients maintain balanced brain chemistry, hormones, and to help them get a good night’s sleep again (2) (3).
1) Penn State Hershey Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Drugs that Deplete: Melatonin.
2) Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Feb;166(2):196-8. Effect of fluoxetine on melatonin in patients with seasonal affective disorder and matched controls. Childs PA1, Rodin I, Martin NJ, Allen NH, Plaskett L, Smythe PJ, Thompson C.
3) Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20(7):763-70. Plasma melatonin and cortisol circadian patterns in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after fluoxetine treatment. Monteleone P1, Catapano F, Tortorella A, Di Martino S, Maj M.
Serotonin in particular is a key chemical that is found in the human body and is involved in mood regulation. Interestingly, studies show that upwards of 95% of your serotonin is produced in your digestive tract, while the rest is produced in your central nervous system. Serotonin is essential for regulation of a happy and balanced mood and promotes feelings of wellbeing and happiness (1). SSRIs such as sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa) or fluoxetine (Prozac) function by increasing the amount of serotonin available in the brain. The theory is that the more serotonin that someone has, the less likely they are to experience depression. Unfortunately these medications also deplete the body many vitamins and nutrients including vitamin B9, also known as folate, folic acid or methylfolate. If patients have inflammation or pain in their tongue, gingivitis (inflammation of the gums in your mouth), poor appetite, diarrhea, digestive upset, or difficulty breathing with shortness of breath, this may mean that they are deficient in folate. Low folate can not only cause the above symptoms and more, but low folate is also associated with poorer responses to SSRI medications, requiring patients to take higher and higher doses, or add on an additional medication (2)(3). Antidepressant Companion not only prevents folate depletion by providing physician-grade forms and dosages of folate, but it also replaces the folate that is depleted by antidepressants. This will help your patient not only feel better, but will also help them keep medication doses low and even set the stages for tapering down if deemed appropriate.
1) McIntosh, J. and Webberley, H. 2015. Serotonin: What Does Serotonin Do? Medical news today.
2) Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Mar;14(1):33-8. Folinic acid (Leucovorin) as an adjunctive treatment for SSRI-refractory depression. Alpert JE1, Mischoulon D, Rubenstein GE, Bottonari K, Nierenberg AA, Fava M.
3) Miller, AL. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Sep;13(3):216-26. The methylation, neurotransmitter, and antioxidant connections between folate and depression.
4) Miller, Z. What is Serotonin and How Does It Affect the Body?
Saffron (Crocus sativus)
Crocus sativus, commonly called saffron, is a spice that has been shown to be as effective as fluoxetine (Prozac) in reducing symptoms of mild-to-moderate depression in adults according to a meta-analysis published in Human Psychopharmacology (1). Another study published in the Journal of Integrative Medicine concluded that saffron is as effective of an antidepressant for adults with major depressive disorder as Prozac. (2). Research has shown that saffron effectively blocks the sexual side effects caused by antidepressants. A study published in the journal Psychopharmacology looked at sexual impairment in men who were taking Prozac and compared a control group to those who were supplemented with daily dosing of saffron. Results showed that after just four weeks, the men in the Prozac-plus-saffron group experienced significantly greater improvement in their erectile function and intercourse satisfaction than the control group who took Prozac-plus-placebo (3). Researchers also published a study in the journal Human Psychopharmacology regarding the incredible findings in supplementation of saffron in women who suffered from various types of sexual dysfunction caused by their antidepressant. The study found that after four weeks, women who were given saffron as compared to the placebo group, experienced significant improvement in sexual function, arousal, lubrication and reduction in pain associated with intercourse (4). Saffron also has been shown to help cut food cravings that are caused by serotonin imbalances. A study published in the journal Nutrition Research elucidated that over an eight week period of time, subjects who were given saffron reported a 55% decrease in the feeling of the need to snack, as compared to only a 28% reduction reported by the placebo group. Additionally, the researchers found that in that eight week period of time the saffron group lost an average of two pounds and reported increased alertness and energy (5). Antidepressant Companion contains Saffron to help your patients reduce symptoms of depression, reverse the sexual side effect of their antidepressant, help them regain control over unnecessary snacking, and even help them lose weight safely, naturally, and without the unwanted side effects.
1) Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. Human Psychopharmacology. 2014 Sept. 22.
2) Saffron has been shown to be an effective antidepressant for adults with major depressive disorder: J Integr Med. 2013 Nov;11(6):377-83. doi: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013056. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Hausenblas HA1, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD.
3) Modabbernia A, Sohrabi H, Nasehi AA, et al. Effect of saffron on fluoxetine-induced sexual impairment in men: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223(4):381-8.
4) Kashani L, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, et al. Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jan;28(1):54-60.
5) Gout B, Bourges C, Paineau-Dubreuil S. Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women. Nutr Res. 2010 May;30(5):305-13
Copper is a mineral that is essential in making the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. If your patients have deficient amounts of copper they may be at a higher risk for suboptimal production of these neurotransmitters. Deficiency in copper is rare but can sometimes occur in people who have too much zinc either from their diets and supplements, or as a result of intestinal bypass surgery (1). Symptoms of copper deficiency may include: Fatigue, anemia, cognitive difficulties, nerve damage, weakness, depression, irritability, poor coordination and confusion (2). There is a key relationship between the minerals copper and zinc. Copper can lower zinc, and contrastingly, zinc can lower copper. Therefore supplementation with the proper ratios of zinc and copper are absolutely essential for overall regulation of these minerals. Moreover, the Journal of Physiological Pharmacology, authors Mlyniec K, et al, found a relationship between zinc and copper and mood disorders. Researchers concluded their research study by stating that the zinc to copper ratio may be considered as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy, and that normalization of blood zinc and copper ratio levels may be useful in treatment of imbalanced conditions that occurred after chronic antidepressant treatment (3). Antidepressant Companion contains the optimal form and dose of both zinc and copper.
1) WebMD. Vitamins & Supplements: Copper.
2) Merck Manual. Copper deficiency and toxicity. 2015 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
3) J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;65(5):673-8. Chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice. Mlyniec K1, Ostachowicz B, Krakowska A, Reczynski W, Opoka W, Nowak G.
Vitamin C/ ascorbic acid/ ascorbyl palmitate
Vitamin C in an antioxidant that protects the body from damage caused by free radicals, harmful substances that cause oxidative stress. Research has shown that antioxidants also have an antidepressant effect. The World Health Organization suggests that depression will be one of the most prominent diseases seen clinically by 2020. The article entitled: “The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders” published in Current Pharmaceutical Design in 2012, describes how increased free radical damage leads to cell death in the brain, and atrophy of neurons and glial cells. This causes alterations in brain function, neuronal plasticity, and we see impaired cognition, memory, concentration, as well as mood disorders. Authors stated: “We found numerous reports elaborating depressive disorder and oxidative stress (1). Many other studies have supported these findings, showing that “Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by [increased] activated oxidative stress” (2). Antidepressant Companion by Natural Mental Health Supplements has been formulated to offer a powerful antioxidant benefit that not only helps reduce free radical damage, but it also helps promote brain function, neuronal plasticity and can help improve cognition and mood. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and has been shown to be clinically useful in reducing free radicals (2). The article entitled “A review of nutrient treatments for paediatric depression” published in Journal of Affective Disorders in 2015 offers promising benefits of vitamin C for treatment of depression (3).
1) Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(36):5890-9. The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders. Michel TM1, Pülschen D, Thome J.
2) Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety: Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment Ying Xu,1,Δ Chuang Wang,2,Δ Jonathan J Klabnik,3 and James M O’Donnell1,* Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014 Mar; 12(2): 108–119.
3) J Affect Disord. 2015 Aug 1;181:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.014. Epub 2015 Apr 13. A review of nutrient treatments for paediatric depression. Lopresti AL1.
L-Citrulline is an amino acid that has been shown to be an effective treatment for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (1). L-Citrulline works by increasing the molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is involved in sexual behaviors, promoting blood circulation, reducing of free radicals, and decreasing oxidative damage. Additionally, it is believed that “reduced synthesis of nitric oxide may be associated with major depression” (2)(3). Antidepressant Companion contains L-Citrulline to help not only with depression but with the sexual side effects of antidepressant medications.
1) Urology. 2011 Jan;77(1):119-22. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2010.08.028. Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction. Cormio L1, De Siati M, Lorusso F, Selvaggio O, Mirabella L, Sanguedolce F, Carrieri G.
2) Nitric Oxide and Neopterin in Bipolar Affective Disorder. R. Hoekstra W.M.A. Verhoeven a D. Fekkes. Neuropsychobiology 2006;54:75–81.
3) Decreased Platelet Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity and Plasma Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Major Depressive Disorder. Wendy E. Chrapko, Paul Jurasz, Marek W. Radomski, Nathalie Lara, Stephen L. Archer, and Jean-Michel Le Melle ́do. BIOL PSYCHIATRY 2004;56:129–134
Antidepressant Companion contains antioxidants and polyphenols which specifically target the brain to reduce oxidative stress (1). Antioxidants protect the body from damage caused by harmful substances, and research has shown that antioxidants also have an antidepressant effect. The World Health Organization suggests that depression will be one of the most prominent diseases seen clinically by 2020. The article entitled: “The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders” published in Current Pharmaceutical Designs in 2012, describes how increased free radical damage leads to cell death in the brain, and atrophy of neurons and glial cells. This causes alterations in brain function, neuronal plasticity, and we see impaired cognition, memory, concentration, as well as mood disorders. Authors stated: “We found numerous reports elaborating depressive disorder and oxidative stress (2). Many other studies have supported these findings, showing that “Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by [increased] activated oxidative stress” (3). Antidepressant Companion by Natural Mental Health Supplements has been formulated to offer a powerful antioxidant benefit that not only helps reduce free radical damage, but it also helps promote brain function, neuronal plasticity and can help improve your cognition and mood. Curcumin is considered a polyphenol and studies have demonstrated polyphenols effectiveness in treating depression. For example, researchers published in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity wrote: “Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition” (4). A study of over 100 male adults between the ages of 31-59 was conducted to see how curcumin impacts major depression. Results showed that not only was curcumin significantly antidepressant, but it also decreased inflammation and stress hormones, and it also helped improve brain growth and plasticity (5). High doses of antioxidants will help your patients not only feel better, but will also help reduce the dose needed to maintain stable moods.
1) Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert, Christine Morand, Christian Rémésy, and Liliana Jiménez. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr May 2004 vol. 79 no. 5 727-747.
2) Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(36):5890-9. The role of oxidative stress in depressive disorders. Michel TM1, Pülschen D, Thome J.
3) Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety: Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment Ying Xu,1,Δ Chuang Wang,2,Δ Jonathan J Klabnik,3 and James M O’Donnell1,* Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014 Mar; 12(2): 108–119.
4) Trebatická J1, Ďuračková Z2. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:248529. doi: 10.1155/2015/248529. Epub 2015 Jun 9.
(5) Yu JJ1, Pei LB, Zhang Y, Wen ZY, Yang JL. Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Aug;35(4):406-10. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000352.
It is an inarguable fact that vitamin D is related to depression. We see incidence of depression increasing in the winter when there is less sunlight being absorbed through the skin, the process by which our body naturally produces vitamin D. (1) (2), In fact, a study of 7,358 patients ages 50 and above, we see that low vitamin D stores put patient at a significantly higher risk for depression (3). Publications also have directly reported that vitamin D supplementation can serve as a powerful antidepressant (3) (5) (6). The article by Stokes et al published in the Journal of Clinical Nutrition stated that: “vitamin D replacement significantly improved depressive symptoms” (7). Additional studies have even gone as far to say that “the antidepressant effect of adequate vitamin D supplementation was found to be comparable to that of antidepressant medication” (8). Vitamin D is particularly important to combat seasonal affective disorder, which occurs in those who do not get adequate amounts of sunlight in the winter months. With respect to this, NMHS has formulated Antidepressant Companion to contain the best form, and safest and most effective dose of vitamin D in combination with the essential doses and forms of minerals and cofactors needed for absorption.
1) Namri A, Mizoue T, et al. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depressive symptoms in Japanese: analysis by survey season. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63:1444-7.
2) Shipowick CK, Moore CB, et al. Vitamin D and depressive symptoms in women during the winter: a pilot study. Appl Nurs Res 2009;22:221-5.
3) May HT, Bair TL, et al. Association of vitamin D levels with incident depression among a general cardiovascular population. Am Heart J 2010;159:1037-43.
4) Shaffer JA1, Edmondson D, Wasson LT, Falzon L, Homma K, Ezeokoli N, Li P, Davidson KW. Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychosom Med. 2014 Apr;76(3):190-6. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000044.
5) Li G1, Mbuagbaw L, Samaan Z, Falavigna M, Zhang S, Adachi JD, Cheng J, Papaioannou A, Thabane L. Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in depression in adults: a systematic review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Mar;99(3):757-67. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-3450. Epub 2013 Dec 11.
6) Anglin RE1, Samaan Z, Walter SD, McDonald SD. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;202:100-7. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.106666.
7) Stokes CS1, Grünhage F2, Baus C3, Volmer DA4, Wagenpfeil S5, Riemenschneider M3, Lammert F2. Vitamin D supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in patients with chronic liver disease. Clin Nutr. 2015 Jul 16. pii: S0261-5614(15)00178-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.07.004.
8) Spedding S1. Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws. Nutrients. 2014 Apr 11;6(4):1501-18. doi: 10.3390/nu6041501.
Centella asiatica, more commonly known as Gotu kola, is a plant used in herbal medicine that packs a powerhouse of relief for those suffering from anxiety or depression. This plant reduces oxidative stress and inflammation associated with depression, anxiety, and aging, gives relief for “brain fog,” and has been shown through multiple studies to be effective in reducing anxiety and depression on its own. Many disorders of the brain, including depression, are associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that when activated, increases oxidation and inflammation. Gotu kola has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of this enzyme, which may contribute to its effectiveness in treatment of anxiety and depression(2). A study conducted by the State Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital in Kolkata, India showed that use of Gotu kola “significantly attenuated anxiety related disorders but it also significantly reduced stress phenomenon and its correlated depression. [Gotu kola] further significantly improved the willingness for adjustment and cognition.”(1) There are several mechanisms that contribute to the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of this herb. A Chinese study demonstrated that use of Gotu kola “may be involved in ameliorating the function of HPA axis and increasing the contents of monoamine neurotransmitters.” This was shown through increases in serum levels of corticosterone, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, hormones and neurotransmitters that are vital for a healthy response to stress and a good mood (3). Further studies have shown that compounds in Gotu kola activate the same GABA receptor sites as benzodiazepines (4). Finally, Gotu kola helps to increase perfusion of blood to the brain, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients that are vital for strong mental function. In vitro studies showed the a compound called Asiaticoside helps to protect neurons from ischemia hypoxia, a major contributor to brain fog (5).
1) Jana U1, Sur TK, Maity LN, Debnath PK, Bhattacharyya D. A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiatica. Nepal Med Coll J. 2010 Mar;12(1):8-11.
2) Ong WY1, Farooqui T2, Kokotos G3, Farooqui AA2. Synthetic and natural inhibitors of phospholipases A2: their importance for understanding and treatment of neurological disorders. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015 Jun 17;6(6):814-31. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00073. Epub 2015 May
3) Chen Y1, Han T, Rui Y, Yin M, Qin L, Zheng H. [Effects of total triterpenes of Centella asiatica on the corticosterone levels in serum and contents of monoamine in depression rat brain]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Jun;28(6):492-6.
4) Ceremuga TE, Valdivieso D, Kenner C, Lucia A, Lathrop K, Stailey O, Bailey H, Criss J, Linton J, Fried J, Taylor A, Padron G, Johnson AD. Evaluation of the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of asiatic acid, a compound from Gotu kola or Centella asiatica, in the male Sprague Dawley rat. AANA J. 2015 Apr;83(2):91-8.
5) Sun T1, Liu B1, Li P1. Nerve Protective Effect of Asiaticoside against Ischemia-Hypoxia in Cultured Rat Cortex Neurons. Med Sci Monit. 2015 Oct 8;21:3036-41. doi: 10.12659/MSM.894024.
Zinc is a mineral that is essential for producing hormones and regulating of your neurotransmitters (like serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Zinc may be found in beef, pork, lamb, fish, grains, legumes and yeast. Three hundred (4) or more enzymes in our bodies use zinc to help them do all of their important activities including cell division, cell growth, healing of wounds, it is involved in blood sugar regulation through the function of insulin and more. A study published in the Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology demonstrates the low zinc is a clinical marker for depression (1). Zinc is considered an effective antidepressant in chronic depression and major depressive disorder (1) (4) (5), in fact, a study in the journal Current Neuropharmacology showed that supplementation with zinc can not only prevent depressive symptoms but relieve depression in test subjects (3). Low levels of zinc have also been correlated with increased oxidative stress, and zinc may act like an antioxidant and therefore treat depression (2). Zinc has a unique relationship with the mineral copper. Excess intake of zinc can lead to copper or iron deficiency, and visa versa. Therefore it is important for patients to consume the appropriate amounts of both zinc and copper together. Antidepressant Companion from Natural Mental Health Supplements ensures that your patients get enough zinc and other nutrient cofactors to produce neurotransmitters from the amino acids both in their diet, and in Antidepressant Companion itself.
1) J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;65(5):673-8. Chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice. Mlyniec K1, Ostachowicz B, Krakowska A, Reczynski W, Opoka W, Nowak G.
2) Liu T1, Zhong S2, Liao X3, Chen J4, He T4, Lai S3, Jia Y2. A Meta-Analysis of Oxidative Stress Markers in Depression. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):e0138904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138904. eCollection 2015.
3) Mlyniec K. Zinc in the Glutamatergic Theory of Depression.Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015;13(4):505-13.
4) Deans, Emily. MD. (September, 15, 2013). Zinc: an Antidepressant The essential mineral for resiliency. Psychology Today.
5) Swardfager W1, Herrmann N, McIntyre RS, Mazereeuw G, Goldberger K, Cha DS, Schwartz Y, Lanctôt KL. Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013 Jun;37(5):911-29. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.018. Epub 2013 Apr 6.
Selenium is a mineral that is found in the soil as well as in many foods. It is essential for overall health and for the thyroid to make active thyroid hormone (T3/triiodothyronine). It is also a powerful antioxidant and immune system regulator. There is a growing evidence that low selenium is also associated with depressed mood (1); particularly in those who have high inflammation or oxidative damage in their body which is caused by free radicals (2) (3) (4). More and more researchers are finding that proper selenium supplementation offers a powerful solution to depression that is aggravated by or caused by oxidative damage and inflammation. An example of this research may be found in an article by Brüning CA et al, published in the Journal of Psychiatric Research. Brüning and his colleagues identified a link between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)– which is pro-inflammatory cytokine substance– and the pathophysiology of depression. First they injected TNF-α into mice which caused depression and inflammation. Then they gave the mice a form of selenium called (m-CF3-PhSe)2. They observed that the selenium provided an antidepressant-like and anti-inflammatory effect which prevented the the depressive-like behavior that had been induced by intracerebroventricular injection of TNF-α (4). If you have inflammation in your body, body pain, and depression, appropriate doses of selenium may be right for you. It is important to dose selenium correctly, and there is evidence that too much and too low selenium may be associated with depression (1). Antidepressant Companion contains the right form and dosage of selenium to reduce symptoms of depression, reduce pain, and repair damage caused by free radicals.
1) Conner TS1, Richardson AC2, Miller JC3., Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults. J Nutr. 2015 Jan;145(1):59-65. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.198010. Epub 2014 Nov 5.
2) Młyniec K1, Gaweł M2, Doboszewska U3, Starowicz G4, Pytka K5, Davies CL6, Budziszewska B7. Essential elements in depression and anxiety. Part II. Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Apr;67(2):187-94. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2014.09.009. Epub 2014 Sep 27.
3) Brüning CA1, Martini F1, Soares SM1, Sampaio TB1, Gai BM1, Duarte MM2, Nogueira CW3. m-Trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide, a multi-target selenium compound, prevented mechanical allodynia and depressive-like behavior in a mouse comorbid pain and depression model. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Dec 3;63:35-46. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.05.011. Epub 2015 May 27. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26025319
4) Brüning CA1, Martini F1, Soares SM1, Savegnago L2, Sampaio TB1, Nogueira CW3. Depressive-like behavior induced by tumor necrosis factor-α is attenuated by m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide in mice. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Jul-Aug;66-67:75-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.04.019. Epub 2015 May 5.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is used by every organ in the body including the central nervous system. Research has shown that thiamine is a key vitamin in understanding risk factors for depression. Thiamine is needed so that the body can process amino acids and it is required in order to make acetylcholine and GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) as well as a multitude of other functions (1). If your patients are deficient in thiamine they may experience a myriad of symptoms ranging from muscle weakness, fatigue, body pains, chronic fatigue, mood imbalances, sexual dysfunction and more. Acetylcholine is a chemical that the brain requires in order to function and send information. Deficient thiamine causing inadequate amounts of acetylcholine can cause a long list of symptoms related to mood and cognition. The amino acid GABA is the main neurotransmitter that your brain uses for calming itself, resting, and relaxing. If your patients are deficient in thiamine and have low amounts of GABA being produced, they may notice increased agitation, anxiety, insomnia, and an inability to calm down and relax. Studies are now showing that thiamine levels are lower generally in patients who have depression (2)(3), and administration of thiamine improves depression and anxiety (2)(3), but appropriate dosing of thiamine can also help treat symptoms of postpartum depression (4), premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS) (5), and it can help curb side effects caused by alcohol consumption (6). Research has shown that antidepressant medications not only impact the ability to produce amino acids, acetylcholine, and GABA, but they can also deplete the body of important building blocks for the production of neurotransmitters. B vitamins work best when dosed together along with other mineral cofactors. Antidepressant Companion contains the right combination of ingredients in addition to the best form and dosage of thiamine.
1) Chase, B. 2015. How B Vitamins Affect Your Sleep. Progressive Health.
Kaner G1, Soylu M1, Yüksel N2, Inanç N1, Ongan D3, Başmısırlı E1. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:521481. doi: 10.1155/2015/521481. Epub 2015 Aug 27.
3) poorer thiamine nutritional status and higher odds of depressive symptoms were associated among older Chinese adults
4) Nikseresht S1, Etebary S, Karimian M, Nabavizadeh F, Zarrindast MR, Sadeghipour HR. Acute administration of Zn, Mg, and thiamine improves postpartum depression conditions in mice. Arch Iran Med. 2012 May;15(5):306-11. doi: 012155/AIM.0012.
5) Abdollahifard S1, Rahmanian Koshkaki A, Moazamiyanfar R. The effects of vitamin B1 on ameliorating the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Glob J Health Sci. 2014 Jul 29;6(6):144-53. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v6n6p144.
6) Himmerich H1, Erbguth F. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases]. Nervenarzt. 2014 Dec;85(12):1512-20. doi: 10.1007/s00115-014-4163-y.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is a vitamin that is important for metabolism, energy, and other cellular functions. The human body can not make it’s own riboflavin making it an essential nutrient that must be consumed daily to maintain health. Riboflavin can be found in green leafy veggies, eggs, legumes, nuts and dairy products. Identifying deficiencies in riboflavin is key to identifying a possible root cause of depression in many people. Research has shown that antidepressant medications deplete your body of important building blocks for the production of neurotransmitters. This includes riboflavin and other b-vitamins. Many studies show that higher levels of riboflavin is associated with better mental health (1), and that even marginal deficiencies in riboflavin is associated with depression in test subjects (2)(4). We know that vitamins are important in all ages, and we know that higher intake of B vitamins, particularly riboflavin, folate, and Vitamin B6, in adolescents and young adults is associated with lower prevalence of depression (3).
1) Davison KM1, Kaplan BJ. Nutrient intakes are correlated with overall psychiatric functioning in adults with mood disorders. Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;57(2):85-92.
2) Naghashpour M1, Amani R, Nutr R, Nematpour S, Haghighizadeh MH. Riboflavin status and its association with serum hs-CRP levels among clinical nurses with depression. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):340-7.
3) Murakami K1, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Arakawa M. Dietary folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and depressive symptoms in early adolescence: the Ryukyus Child Health Study. Psychosom Med. 2010 Oct;72(8):763-8. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f02f15. Epub 2010 Aug 17.
4) Davison KM1, Kaplan BJ. Vitamin and mineral intakes in adults with mood disorders: comparisons to nutrition standards and associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):547-58.
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
Niacin is a very important vitamin to be considered if your patients have a mood disorder, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, problems with sleep, and more. There are several forms of niacin, and the form called niacinamide is the alkaline form of niacin which is just as effective as nicotinic acid but it does not cause flushing, making it easier for your patients to tolerate. Niacin causes the blood vessels to dilate, allowing nutrient rich blood to travel to the joints, skin and organs to help reduce pain, promote anti-aging nutrient flow and to promote detoxification. Research has shown that antidepressant medications deplete your body of niacin (1), and higher levels of nutrient intake of niacin is associated with better mental health (2) (3). Niacin is involved in many reactions in the body. Niacin activates receptors in the brain that affect sleep and therefore if your patients are taking an antidepressant that is depleting your brain of niacin, they may develop insomnia. Niacin is also needed by the body in order to make sex hormones and low niacin caused by antidepressants is related to low libido, erectile dysfunction (ED), and difficulty achieving orgasm. Appropriate doses and forms of niacin is a powerful tool for targeting sexual side effects. In fact, an article published by the Journal of Sexual Medicine stated: “Niacin alone can improve the erectile function in patients suffering from moderate to severe ED and dyslipidemia” (4). Niacin can help with weight loss and it is a key nutrient used in lowering cholesterol including triglycerides, and thereby lowering the risk of heart disease (5)(6). If patients suffer from depression, difficulty sleeping, a low libido, fatigue, digestive upset, or canker sores it may be a sign that they are suffering from low niacin. Niacin works best when given in conjunction with other B vitamins and minerals in their appropriate forms and dosages. Antidepressant Companion has been formulated by doctors who have over a decade of experience in integrative treatments of mental health and they have formulated Antidepressant Companion to contain the non-flushing form of niacin and it’s perfect dose, together with the complementary vitamins and minerals to give the maximum benefit without any of the side effects.
1) Viljoen M, Swanepoel A, Bipath P. Antidepressants may lead to a decrease in niacin and NAD in patients with poor dietary intake. Med Hypotheses. 2015 Mar;84(3):178-82. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.12.017. Epub 2014 Dec 30.
2) Davison KM1, Kaplan BJ. Vitamin and mineral intakes in adults with mood disorders: comparisons to nutrition standards and associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):547-58.
3) Davison KM1, Kaplan BJ. Nutrient intakes are correlated with overall psychiatric functioning in adults with mood disorders. Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;57(2):85-92.
4) Ng CF1, Lee CP, Ho AL, Lee VW. Effect of niacin on erectile function in men suffering erectile dysfunction and dyslipidemia. J Sex Med. 2011 Oct;8(10):2883-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02414.x. Epub 2011 Aug 2.
5) Bragg DA, Walling A. Metabolic Syndrome: Hyperlipidemia.. FP Essent. 2015 Aug;435:17-23.
6) Krasuski RA1, Devendra GP, Cater G, Whitney EJ. The effect of gemfibrozil, niacin and cholestyramine combination therapy on metabolic syndrome in the Armed Forces Regression Study. Am J Med Sci. 2011 May;341(5):378-82. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318209d851.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is a vitamin that is extremely important in regulating mood primarily because of its action of preventing build-up of homocysteine by converting it into cysteine. Homocysteine is a naturally occurring amino acid that is a part of themethylation process. Methylation happens in every cell of our body and is essential in making neurotransmitters that regulate our mood, metabolism, energy, and more. Vitamin B6, B9, and B12 are important players in the methylation process, and if any of these vitamins are deficient, there may be serious consequences. Homocysteine has been recognized as a risk factor for disease and studies are showing that elevated concentrations of homocysteine are not only associated with cardiovascular disease and an increased risk for alzheimer’s disease, but it is also a key player in depression in adolescents and adults (1). Studies show that higher intake of dietary B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-6 are associated with a lower prevalence of depression symptoms (2), and a proposed mechanism of action is that high concentrations of homocysteine increased a person’s risk of depression (3). In fact, it has been reported that lowering homocysteine levels can reduce depression by at least 20% (4). Taking the appropriate form and dosage of pyridoxine helps with proper methylation and neurotransmitter production, promotes reduction depression symptoms, improves brain function (memory, concentration), and prevents chronic disease. Pyridoxine works best when given in conjunction with other B vitamins and minerals in their appropriate forms and dosages and Antidepressant Companion contains the optimal combination of ingredients to help your patients get started on the journey towards health!
1) Almeida OP, McCaul K, Hankey GJ, Norman P, Jamrozik K, Flicker L. Homocysteine and depression in later life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov;65(11):1286-94. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.11.1286.
2) Murakami K1, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Arakawa M. Dietary folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and depressive symptoms in early adolescence: the Ryukyus Child Health Study. Psychosom Med. 2010 Oct;72(8):763-8. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f02f15. Epub 2010 Aug 17.
3) Miodownik C1, Lerner V, Vishne T, Sela BA, Levine J. High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jan-Feb;30(1):13-7.
4) Pyridoxine promotes sleep: Zeng Y, Yang J, Du J, Pu X, Yang X, Yang S, Yang T. Strategies of Functional Foods Promote Sleep in Human Being. Curr Signal Transduct Ther. 2014 Dec;9(3):148-155.
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an essential vitamin that is used by every cell in your body. Cobalamin is involved in brain function, metabolism, weight management, libido, mood, energy, and more. Cobalamin can not be produced by the body, and therefore must be consumed in foods or supplemented. Examples of foods containing B12 include but are not limited to: shellfish, liver, beef, fish, and B12 fortified foods. Low amounts of cobalamin is associated with anemia. Cobalamin also plays an essential role in the conversion of homocysteine into methionine. Homocysteine is a naturally occurring amino acid that is a part of your body’s methylation process. Methylation happens in every cell of our body and is essential in making neurotransmitters that regulate our mood, metabolism, energy, and more. If this conversion does not occur, homocysteine will build up in the body and this is harmful, as homocysteine is considered toxic to the nervous system (5). In recent years, studies have demonstrated a causal link between depression and low cobalamin (4) that those who have adequate amounts of cobalamin are not only at a lower risk for depression (2). Cobalamin may be used as an antidepressant (3), and it can even help reduce body weight weight even if the person does not change their food intake (6) (7). Cobalamin is particularly important in persons who have a genetic alteration in key enzyme called methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). This mutation renders the person unable to methylate properly which can have deleterious side effects. Supplementation with a methylated form of cobalamin, called methylcobalamin, can correct this issue (5). There are three main types of cobalamin: Cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin are considered the cheapest forms of cobalamin and are poorly absorbed. Methylcobalamin is the best form of cobalamin, and taking the methylated form can help the body methylate properly so that it can make neurotransmitters that are involved in a balanced mood, it can also promote relief of depression, improve brain function, and prevent chronic disease. Antidepressant Companion contains the methylated forms of B vitamins optimal combination of ingredients to help you start to feel like yourself again.
1) Almeida OP, McCaul K, Hankey GJ, Norman P, Jamrozik K, Flicker L. Homocysteine and depression in later life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Nov;65(11):1286-94. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.11.1286.
2) Gougeon L1,2, Payette H3,4, Morais JA5, Gaudreau P6,7, Shatenstein B8,9, Gray-Donald K2. Intakes of folate, vitamin B6 and B12 and risk of depression in community-dwelling older adults: the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 9. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.202.
3) Lang UE, Beglinger C, Schweinfurth N, Walter M, Borgwardt S. Nutritional aspects of depression. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37(3):1029-43. doi: 10.1159/000430229. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
4) Edney LC1, Burns NR1, Danthiir V2. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct;114(8):1321-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002949. Epub 2015 Sep 8.
5) Bhatia P1, Singh N2. Homocysteine excess: delineating the possible mechanism of neurotoxicity and depression. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Aug 27. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12145.
6) Paternain L1, Martisova E2, Campión J3, Martínez JA4, Ramírez MJ5, Milagro FI3. Methyl donor supplementation in rats reverses the deleterious effect of maternal separation on depression-like behaviour. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Nov 25;299:51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.11.031.
7) Kaner G1, Soylu M1, Yüksel N2, Inanç N1, Ongan D3, Başmısırlı E1. Evaluation of Nutritional Status of Patients with Depression. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:521481. doi: 10.1155/2015/521481.